June 18, 2018


Acetyl choline– a compound that occurs throughout the nervous system in which it functions as a neurotransmitter

Acinar– (release digestive enzyme) any cluster of cells that resembles a many-lobed berry, such as a raspberry

Acrosome – an organelle that develops over the anterior half of the head in the sperm cells of many animals

Actin – a protein that forms (together with myosin) the contractile filaments of muscle cells, and is also involved in motion in other types of cells

Action potential – the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell

Adenine – a compound that is one of the four constituents bases of nucleic acids

Adenosine diphosphate – ADP is the result when ATP loses one of its phosphate groups when the energy is released to power up many vital cellular processes

Adenosine triphosphate – a compound consisting of an adenosine molecule bonded to three phosphate groups, present in all living tissue. The breakage of one phosphate linkage (to form adenosine diphosphate, ADP) provides energy for physiological processes such as muscular contraction.

Adenylyl cyclase – an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells

Adrenal medulla– part of the adrenal gland and is located at the center of the gland, being surrounded by the adrenal cortex

Afferent – conducting or conducted inward or toward something (for nerves, the central nervous system)

Agonist – (main muscle) occurs in pairs with antagonist muscles; as one muscle contracts, the other relaxes

Aldosterone – a corticosteroid hormone that stimulates absorption of sodium by the kidneys and so regulates water and salt balance

Alveoli – tiny air sacs within the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place

Amine – an organic compound derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by organic groups

Amnion – the innermost membrane that encloses the embryo of a mammal, bird or reptile

Amphipathic – having hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts

Anabolic Steroids – a synthetic hormone that resembles testosterone in promoting the growth of muscle

Angiotensinogen – a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure

Antagonist – (opposite muscle) occurs in pairs with agonist muscles; as one muscle contracts, the other relaxes

Anterior pituitary-the anterior lobe of the pituitary, mostly glandular in nature

Antibody – a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen

Anticodon – a sequence of 3 nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complimentary codon in messenger RNA

Antigen – a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response I the body, especially the production of antibodies

Aorta– the main artery of the body, supplying oxygenated blood to the circulatory system

Aortic valve– one of the two semi-lunar valves of the heart.

Apex (apical)– the top or highest part of something esp. one forming a point

Apical surface – the edge of the epithelial tissue that faces the lumen or the outside world

Appendage – a projecting part of an invertebrate or other living organism, with a distinct appearance or function

Aquaporin – integral membrane proteins from a larger family of major intrinsic proteins (MIP) that form pores in the membrane of biological cells

Arrhythmia– a condition in which the heart beats with an irregular or abnormal rhythm

Arterioles– a small branch of an artery leading into capillaries

Artificial Insemination – the injection of semen into the vagina or uterus other than by sexual intercourse

Ascending limb – the ascending limb of loop of Henle is a segment of the nephron in the kidney divided into a thin and thick ascending limb (also known as distal straight tubule)

Asthma – a respiratory condition marked by spasms in the bronchi of the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing.

Astrocyte – a star-shaped glial cell of the central nervous system

ATPase – an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ATP from ADP, inorganic phosphate, and energy found in mitochondria and chloroplasts

Atresia – the degeneration of those ovarian follicles that do not ovulate during the menstrual cycle

Atrioventricular node – the location in the heart’s conduction system, between the atria and the ventricles, which conducts the normal electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles

Atrioventricular valve/tricuspid valve– either of the two heart valves through which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles; prevents return of blood to the atrium

Atrium– each of the two upper cavities of the heart from which blood is passed to the ventricles

Autocrine – a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell leading to changes in the cell

Axon – the long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells

Bacteria – member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms that have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease

Basal lamina – a layer of extracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells, on which the epithelium sits

Basilar– of or situated at the base of something

Bowman’s capsule – a capsule-shaped membranous structure surrounding the glomerulus of each nephron in the kidneys of mammals that extracts wastes, excess salts, and water from the blood

Bronchi – (plural form of bronchus) – any of the major air passages of the lungs that diverge from the windpipe

Bronchioles – any of the minute branches into which a bronchus divides

Brush border (striated border) – it is a name for the microvilli-covered surface of epithelium cells

Bubor – (redness) a swollen, inflamed lymph node in the armpit or groin

Bulbourethral Glands – Cowper’s glands; a pea-sized gland in the male located behind and to the side of the urethra that discharges a component of seminal fluid into the urethra


Capillary – any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles of venules

Carbohydrate-(CHO) any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues inc. sugars, starch and cellulose

Carbonic acid – H2CO3

Carbonic anhydrase – an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of dissolved bicarbonates and carbon dioxide

Carboxy terminus – (C terminus) the end of an amino acid chain terminated by a free carboxyl group

Carboxylic acid – an organic acid containing a carboxyl group

Cardio myocytes- cardiac muscle cells

Carotid artery – the major blood vessels in the neck that supply blood to the brain, neck and face

Cartilage – Firm, whitish, flexible connective tissue found in various forms in the larynx and respiratory tract, in structures such as the external ear, and in the articulating surfaces of joints. It is more widespread in the infant skeleton, being replaced by bone during growth

Cavor (heat) – 

Cell body – the nucleus-containing central part of a neuron exclusive of its axons and dendrites that is the major structural element of the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord, the ganglia, and the retina-called also perikayron, soma

Cellular Immunity – an immune response that does not involve antibodies

Central nervous system– (CNS) the complex of nerve tissues that control the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord

Cerebral spinal fluid – CSF – clear watery fluid that fills the space between the arachnoid membrane and the pita mater

Cervix – the narrow neck-like passage forming the lower end of the uterus

Chemoreceptor – a sensory cell or organ responsive to chemical stimuli

Cholecystokinin– a hormone that is secreted by the cells in the duodenum and stimulates a release of bile into the intestine and the secretion of enzymes by the pancreas

Cholinergic– relating to or denoting nerve cells in which acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter

Chondrocyte – a cell that has secreted the matrix of cartilage and become embedded in it

Chorion- outermost membrane surrounding an embryo of a reptile, bird or mammal

Claudins – a membrane protein, juxtaposed strands of which form tight junctions between epithelial cells

Clone – an organism or cell, or group of organisms or cells, produced asexually from one ancestor or stock, to which they are genetically identical

Collagen – the main structural protein found in animal connective tissue, yielding gelatin when boiled

Compliance (expansion/inhale) – a measure of the ease of expansion of the lungs and thorax, determined by pulmonary volume and elasticity

Conductile cells– initiate and propagate the action potential (electrical impulse) that travels throughout the heart and triggers the contractions that propel the blood

Conducting Zone – dedicated to delivering air to and from the alveoli of the respiratory zone

Connective tissue – a material made up of fibers forming a framework and support structure for body tissues and organs

Connective tissue proper – a subset of connective tissue. Characterized as having more intercellular material than cells

Contractile cells– the smooth muscle cells of the heart that contract

Cooperativity – an increase or decrease in the rate of interaction between a reactant and a protein as the reactant concentration increases

Corpus Albicans – the white fibrous scar that remains in the ovary after the resorption of the corpus luteum

Corpus Hemorrhagicum – (bloody body) a temporary structure formed immediately after ovulation from the ovarian follicle

Corpus luteum-a yellow, progesterone secreting mass of cells that forms from an ovarian follicle after the release of a mature egg

Corpuscle – a minute body or cell in an organism, especially a red or white cell in the blood of vertebrates

Cortex (kidney) – the renal cortex is the outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla

Cortico medullary gradient – final concentration of urine in the collecting ducts which rely on osmotic gradient

Cortisol – the principal steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex; regulates carbohydrate metabolism and the immune system and maintains blood pressure

Cranial nerve-each of 12 pairs of nerves that arise directly from the brain, not from the spinal cord, and pass through separate apertures in the skull

Cremaster Muscles – the muscle of the spermatic cord, by which the testicle can be partially raised

Cyanosis – a bluish discoloration of the skin resulting from poor circulation or inadequate oxygenation of the blood

Cyclic amp– a cyclic form of amp that plays a major role in controlling many enzyme-catalyzed processes in living cells

Cytokine – any of a number of substances, such as interferon, interleukin, and growth factors, that are secreted by certain cells of the immune system and have an effect on other cells

Cytoskeleton – a microscopic network of protein filaments and tubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells, giving them shape and coherence

Dendrite – a short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body

Depolarization– loss of the difference in charge between the inside and outside of the plasma membrane of a muscle or nerve cell

Descending limb – The descending limb of loop of Henle is the portion of the renal tubule constituting the first part of the loop of Henle

DHP receptor– (DHPR) normally a voltage-dependent calcium channel, functions in skeletal muscle essentially as a voltage sensor, triggering intracellular calcium release for excitation-contraction coupling

Dialysis – the separation of particles in a liquid on the basis of differences in their ability to pass through a membrane

Diaphragm – a dome shaped muscular partition separating the thorax from the abdomen in mammals

Diastole– the phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood

Distal convoluted tubule – it is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct system

DNA polymerase – enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA

Dolor (pain) – any condition of physical pain, mental anguish, or suffering from heat

Duodenum– the first part of the small intestine immediately beyond the stomach, leading to the jejunum

Efferent – conducted or conducting outward or away from something (for nerves, the central nervous; for blood vessels, the organ supplied)

Elastic recoil (compression/exhale) – the rebound of the lungs after having been stretched by inhalation

Elastin – an elastic, fibrous glycoprotein found in connective tissue

Electrocardiogram- a record or display of a person’s heartbeat produced by electrocardiography

End diastolic volume- it is the volume of blood in the right and or left ventricle at the end load or filling in (diastole) or the amount of blood in the ventricles just before systole

Endocardium– the thin smooth membrane that lines the inside of the chambers of the heart and forms the surface of the valves

Endocytosis – taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole

Endometrium – the mucous membrane lining the uterus

Endosome – a smooth sac within the cell, formed by or fused with coated vesicles

Endothelium – the tissue that forms a single layer of cells lining various organs and cavities of the body, especialy the blood vessels, heart, and lymphatic vessels

Enterocytes-a cell of the intestinal lining

Enzyme – any of various proteins originating from living cells and capable of producing certain chemical changes by catalytic action, as in digestion

Epididymis – a highly convoluted duct behind the testis, along which sperm passes to the vas deferens

Epinephrine – another term for adrenaline, it is released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress, as in fear or injury

Epithelial – membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body

Epithelium – the thin tissue forming the outer layer of a body’s surface and lining the alimentary canal and other hollow structures

Erythrocytes- red blood cell, contains hemoglobin and can carry oxygen to the body

Estradiol- the most potent naturally occurring estrogen in mammals

Estrogen- any of a group of steroid hormones that promote the development and maintenance of female characteristics

Eukaryote – an organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus

Exocytosis – a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane

Exon – a segment of a DNA or RNA molecule containing information coding for a protein or peptide sequence

Extracellular fluid – the body fluid outside the cell composed of blood plasma, interstitial fluid, lymph and transcellular fluid

Extracellular matrix – (ECM) a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provide structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells

Extracellular protein – a peptide found in the body fluids outside of cells

Fallopian Tube – either of a pair of tubes along which eggs travel from the ovaries to the uterus

Fibrocyte – an inactive mesenchymal cell, that is, a cell showing minimal cytoplasm, limited amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum and lacks biochemical evidence of protein synthesis

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-a hormone that stimulates the growth and maturation of eggs in the ovary

Follicles – a small secretory cavity, sac, or gland

Folliculogenesis – the process of growing and developing for an ovarian follicle in the ovary

Foreign body – an object of piece of extraneous matter that has entered the body by accident or design

GABA – (gamma-aminobutric acid) – a neurotransmitter that inhibits activation of neurons

Gastric pits – indentations in the stomach which denote entrances to the tubular shaped gastric glands.

Gastrin- a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric juice, and is secreted into the blood stream by the stomach wall in response to the presence of food

Gene transcription – the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA

Gene translation – process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins

Generator potential – (receptor potential) – stationary depolarization of a receptor that occurs in response to a stimulus and is graded according to its intensity and that results in an action potential when the appropriate threshold is reached

Germ Cell – an embryonic cell with the potential of developing into a gamete

Germinal – relating to or of the nature of a germ cell or embryo

Germinal cells – a cell from which other cells are derived, especially a dividing cell in the embryonic neural tube

Glia – the connective tissue of the nervous system, consisting of several different types of cell associated with neurons

Glomerulus – a cluster of capillaries around the end of a kidney tubule, where waste products are filtered from the blood

Glutamate – a salt or ester of glutamic acid

Glycosaminoglycan – any of a group of compounds occurring chiefly as components of connective tissue.

Goblet cell- a column shaped cell found in the respiratory and intestinal tracts, which secretes the main component of mucus

Golgi apparatus – a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GDRH)-a hormone produced by the hypothalamus that signals the anterior pituitary gland to begin secreting LH and FSH

Gonadotropin-a hormone that stimulates the growth and activity of the gonads

G-protein coupled receptors – are the largest and most diverse group of membrane receptors in eukaryotes. These cell surface receptors act like an inbox for messages in the form of light energy, peptides, lipids, sugars, and proteins

Granulocytes- white blood cell with secretory granules in its cytoplasm

Guanine – a compound that occurs in guano and fish scales and is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids

Gubernaculum- a fibrous cord connecting two structures i.e. the testes and scrotum

Haploid – having a single set of unpaired chromosomes

Hematocrit- the ratio of the volume of RBC to the total volume of blood

Hematopoietic stem cell – the blood cells that give rise to all the other blood cells and are derived from mesoderm

Hemoglobin – a red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood of vertebrates.

Hepatic portal vein- a vein conveying blood to the liver from the spleen, stomach pancreas and intestines

Hepatocytes- a liver cell

Histamine – a compound that is released by cells in response to injury and in allergic and inflammatory reactions

Hormones – a regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific cells or tissues into action

Humoral Immunity – refers to antibody production and the accessory processes that accompany it

Hyaline – a structureless, transparent substance found in cartilage, the eye, etc., resulting from the pathological degeneration of tissue

Hydrophilic – having an affinity for water, readily absorbing or dissolving in water

Hydrophobic – tending to repel or fail to mix with water

Hydrostatic (*blood pushing outward on wall of capillaries) – relating to or denoting the equilibrium of liquids and the pressure exerted by liquid at rest

Hydroxyapatite – a mineral of the apatite group that is the main inorganic constituent of tooth enamel and bone, although it is rare in rocks

Hypothalamus-a neural control center at the base of the brain concerned with hunger, thirst, satiety and autonomic functions

Hypovolemic shock – an emergency condition in which severe blood and fluid loss make the heart unable to pump enough blood to the body. This type of shock can cause many organs to stop working

Ileum- the third portion of the small intestine, between the jejunum and the cecum

Immunity – the ability of an organism to resist a particular infection or toxin by the action of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells

In Vitro fertilization – (IVF) a complex series of procedures used to treat fertility or genetic problems and assist with the conception of a child

Inferior vena cava- this is the largest vein in the human body. It collects blood from veins serving the tissues inferior to the heart and returns this blood to the right atrium of the heart

Infertility- diminished or absent ability to conceive and bear offspring

Inflammation – a localized physical condition in which part of the body becomes reddened, swollen, hot, and often painful, especially as a reaction to injury or infection

Intercalated disks- microscopic identifying features of cardiac muscle

Interleuken – any of a class of glycoproteins produced by leukocytes for regulating immune responses

Interstitial space- pertaining to or situated between parts or in the inter spaces of a tissue

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection – (ICSI) – an test-tube fertilization procedure in which a sperm is injected directly into an egg to achieve fertilization

Intron – a segment of the DNA or RNA molecule that does not code for proteins and interrupts the sequence of genes

Invagination – the action or process of being turned inside out or folded back on itself to form a cavity or pouch

Isovolumetric contraction- the interval between the closing of the AV valves and the opening of the semi-lunar valves

Jejunum- the part of the small intestine between the duodenum and ileum

Juxtaglomerular cells – cells in the kidney that synthesize, store, and secrete the enzyme renin

Keratin – a fibrous protein forming the main structural constituent of hair, feathers, hooves, etc.

Kidney – each of a pair of organs in the abdominal cavity of mammals, birds, and reptiles, excreting urine

Kinase- an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a specified ml=molecule

Lactase- an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose to glucose and galactose

Lagging strand – the DNA strand that is replicated discontinuously from the 5’ to the 3’ direction

Larynx – the hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to the lungs and holding the vocal cords in humans and other mammals; the voice box

Leukocyte – a colorless cell that circulates in the blood and body fluids and is involved in counteracting foreign substances and disease

Ligament – a short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilage or holds together a joint

Ligand-gated ionotropic channels – a group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger such as a neurotransmitter

Lipase- a pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of fats to fatty acids and glycerol and other alcohols

Lipids – a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents

Liposome – a tiny vesicle made out of the same material as a cell membrane

Liver – a large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates, involved in many metabolic processes

Lumen – the inside space of a tubular structure such as an artery or intestine; it is also used to describe the inside space of a cellular component, such as the endoplasmic reticulum

Lymph – a colorless fluid containing white blood cells, that bathes the tissues and drains through the lymphatic system into the bloodstream

Lymphocyte – a form of small leukocyte (white blood cell) with a single round nucleus, occurring especially in the lymphatic system

Lysosome – an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane

Macrophage – a large phagocytic cell found in stationary form in the tissues or as a mobile white blood cell, especially at sites of infection

Macula densa – area of closely packed specialized cells lining the wall of the cortical thick ascending limb, at the transition to the distal convoluted tubule

Maltose- a sugar produced by the breakdown of starch

Mammary system- any of the milk-producing glands in female mammals

Mast cell- a cell filled with basophil granules, found in numbers in connective tissue and releasing histamine and other substances during inflammatory and allergic reactions

Medulla (kidney) – the renal medulla is the innermost part of the kidney

Megakaryocytes- a large bone marrow cell with a lobulated nucleus responsible for the production of blood platelets

Meiosis- a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell

Melanocyte – a mature melanin-forming cell, typically in the skin

Mesothelial – the epithelium that lines the pleurae, peritoneum, and pericardium

Mesothelium- the epithelium that lines the pleura, peritoneum and pericardium

Metabolism – the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life

Metazoans- all multicellular animal organisms

Microtubule – a microscopic tubular structure present in numbers in the cytoplasm of cells, sometimes aggregating to form more complex structure

Mitochondria – an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur

Mitosis-type of cell division that results in two daughter cells, each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus

Monocytes-a large phagocytic white blood cell

Mucosa – a mucous membrane

Myelin – a mixture of proteins and phospholipids forming a whitish insulating sheath around many nerve fibers, increasing the speed at which impulses are conducted

Myocardium- the muscular wall of the heart

Myosin- a fibrous protein that forms (together with actin) the contractile filaments of muscle cells

Naïve B Cell – a B cell that has not been exposed to an antigen

Nephron – each of the functional units in the kidney, consisting of a glomerulus and its associated tubule, through which the glomerular filtrate passes before emerging as urine

Nerve – a whitish fiber or bundle of fibers that transmits impulses of sensation to the brain or spinal cord, and impulses from these to the muscles and organs

Neuron – a nerve cell; any of the impulse conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column and nerves in invertebrates

Neurotransmitter – a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, muscle fiber, or some other structure

Neutrophil – a neutrophilic white blood cell

Nociception- a sensory neuron that responds to potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to the brain usually that of pain

Norepinephrine-a hormone that is released by the adrenal medulla and by the sympathetic nerves and functions as a neurotransmitter

Occludens – tight junctions formed by the fusion of integral proteins of the lateral cell membranes of adjacent epithelial cells

Octamer – the eight protein complex found at the center of a nucleosome core particle

Oligodendrocyte – a glial cell similar to an astrocyte but with fewer protuberances, concerned with the production of myelin in the central nervous system

Oogenesis – the production or development of an ovum

Osmolarity – the concentration of a solution expressed as the total number of solute particles per liter

Osmotic pressure – the pressure that would have to be applied to a pure solvent to prevent it from passing into a given solution by osmosis

Osteoclast – a large multinucleate bone cell that absorbs bone tissue during growth and healing

Osteocyte/osteoblast – a bone cell, formed when an osteoblast becomes embedded in the matrix it has secreted

Osteon – the fundamental functional unit of much compact bone

Ovaries-a pair of female gonads

Oviduct – tube throough which an ovum or egg passes from an ovary

Ovulation- to produce and discharge eggs from an ovary or ovarian follicle

Oxytocin – a hormone released by the pituitary gland that causes increased contraction of the uterus during labor and stimulates the ejection of milk into the ducts of the breasts.

Oxytocin – a hormone released by the pituitary gland that causes increased contraction of the uterus during labor and stimulates the ejection of milk into the ducts of the breasts

Pampiniform plexus- a network of many small veins found in the human male spermatic cord

Pancreatic amylase- an enzymes secreted by the pancreas that digests starch

Paracrine – of, relating to, or denoting a hormone that has effect only in the vicinity of the gland secreting it

Parasympathetic- (PN) part of the involuntary nervous system that serves to slow the heart rate, increase intestinal and glandular activity, and relax the sphincter muscles

Parietal – of, relating to, attached to, or denoting the wall of the body or of a body cavity or hollow structure

Parietal pericardium-the outer layer of the pericardium that is attached to the diaphragm and sternum

Pathogen – a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease

Peptidases-any of the class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptides or peptones to amino acids

Perforin – a protein, released by killer cells of the immune system,that destroys targeted cells by creating lesions like pores in their membranes

Pericarditis- the inflammation of the pericardium

Pericardium- the membrane enclosing the heart

Periosteum – a dense layer of vascular connective tissue enveloping the bones except at the surfaces of the joints

Peripheral nervous system- (PNS) the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord

Phagocytosis – the ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans

Pharynx – the membrane-lined cavity behind the nose and mouth, connecting them to the esophagus

Phosphorylation- introducing a phosphate group to an organic molecule

Phrenic nerve – originates in the neck, C3-C5, and passes down between the lung and the heart to reach the diaphragm; it is important for breathing, as it passes motor information to the diaphragm and receives sensory information from it

Placenta – a flattened circular organ in the uterus of pregnant eutherian mammals, nourishing and maintaining the fetus through the umbilical cord

Plasma B Secreting Cells – also called plasma cells, plasmocytes, and effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies. They are transported by the blood plasma and the lymphatic system

Plasma membrane – the boundary between the cell and its environment

Platelets-a small colorless disc shaped cell fragment without a nucleus, found in large numbers in blood and involved in clotting

Pleural cavity– the space that develops between the two pleurae when there is fluid between them.

Pneumocytes – one of the cells lining the alveoli (the air sacs) in the lung

Podocytes – (or visceral epithelial cells) are cells in the Bowman’s capsule in the kidneys that wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus

Polymer – a very large, chain-like molecule made of on monomers, which are small molecules

Postganglionic – distal to or beyond a ganglion; referring to the unmyelinated nerve fibres originating from cells in an autonomic ganglion

Potassium channel – the most widely distributed type of ion channel

Preganglionic – situated proximal or preceding a ganglion; referring specifically to the preganglionic motor neurons of the autonomic nervous system

Progesterone- a steroid hormone released by the corpus luteum that stimulates the uterus to prepare for pregnancy

Prolactin- a hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates milk production after childbirth

Proprioception-the unconscious perception of movement and spatial orientation arising from stimuli within the body itself

Prostate Gland – a gland surrounding the neck of the bladder in male mammals

Protein plaque – a plaque consisting of tangles of amyloid protein in nervous tissue

Protein transcription – the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RND (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase

Protein translation – the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins

Proteolytic Enzyme – any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into smaller peptide fractions and amino acids by a process known as proteolysis

Proximal convoluted tubule – the convoluted portion of the vertebrate nephron that lies between Bowman’s capsule and the loop of Henle and functions especially in the resorption of sugar, sodium and chloride ions, and water from the glomerular filtrate-called also proximal tubule

Puberty – the period during which adolescents reach sexual maturity and become capable of reproduction

Pulmonary artery- artery carrying blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation

Pulmonary valve/semi-lunar valve- a valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery; prevents blood flowing from the artery back into the heart

Pulmonary vein- a vein carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart

Purine – one of several purine derivatives, especially the bases adenine and guanine, which are fundamental constituents of nucleic acids. A colorless crystalline compound with basic properties, forming uric acid on oxidation

Purkinje fibers- relays cardiac impulses to the ventricular cells causing the ventricles to contract

Pyloric sphincter- a ring of smooth muscle fibers around the opening of the stomach and the duodenum

Pyrimidine – a substituted derivative of this, especially the bases thymine and cytosine present in DNA

Receptor – an organ or cell able to respond to light, heat or other external stimulus and transmit a signal to a sensory nerve

Renal – of or relating to the kidney

Renin angiotensin pathway – a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance

Repolarization- the reestablishment of polarity, especially the return of cell membrane potential to resting potential after depolarization

Respiratory zone – air sacs where gas exchange actually occurs in the lungs

Ribosomal rna (rRNA) – a molecular component of a ribosome, the cell’s essential protein factory

Ribozyme – RNA molecule capable of acting as an enzyme

RYR receptor- ryanodine receptor, a class of intracellular calcium channels in various forms of excitable animal tissue like muscles and neurons

Saltatory conduction – (from the Latin saltare, to hop or leap) is the propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons from one node of Ranvier to the next node, increasing conduction velocity of action potentials

Sarcomere- a structural unit of a myofibril in striated muscle, consisting of a dark band and the nearer half of each adjacent pale band

Sarcoplasmic reticulum-(SR) specialized endoplasmic reticulum of cardiac muscle and skeletal striated muscle that functions especially as a storage and release area for calcium

Schwann cell – a cell that forms spiral layers around a myelinated nerve fiber between two nodes of Ranvier and forms the myelin sheath consisting of the inner spiral layers from which the protoplasm has been squeezed out

Scrotum – a pouch of skin containing the testicles

Seminal Vesicle – each of a pair of glands that open to the vas deferens near its junction with the urethra and secrete many of the components of semen

Seminiferous tubules- any of the coiled thread like tubules that make up the bulk of the testes

Serous fluid- any of various bodily fluids resembling lymph

Sertoli cells-elongated cells in the seminiferous tubules to which spermatids are attached

Sinoatrial node – a small body of specialized muscle tissue in the wall of the right atrium of the heart that acts as a pacemaker by producing a contractile signal at regular intervals.

Sinusoids- a small irregularly shaped blood vessel found in certain organs, esp. the liver

Snare (V and T) – the primary role of SNARE proteins is to mediate vesicle fusion, that is, the fusion of vesicles with their target membrane bound compartments

Spermatid-a cell in the late stage of sperm development

Spermatocytogenisis –the production or development of mature spermatozoa

Spermatogenesis- the production or development of mature spermatozoa

Spermatozoa-a mature reproductive cell in the male

Spleen – an abdominal organ involved in the production and removal of blood cells in most vertebrates and forming part of the immune system

Stereo hormone – hormones which mediate a wide variety of vital physiological functions ranging form anti-inflammatory agents to regulating pregnancy

Stroke volume- the amount of blood pumped out of the heart during each contraction

Sucrose- a compound that is a chief component of cane sugar

Superior vena cava- the large vein which returns blood to the heart from the head, neck and both upper limbs

Sympathetic Nervous System- a part of the nervous system that serves to accelerate the heart, constrict blood vessels and raise blood pressure a part of the autonomic nervous system

Synaptic vesicle (neurotransmitter vesicles) – in a neuron, synaptic vesicles store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse

Systole- the phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood from the chambers into arteries

TATA box – a DNA sequence that indicates where a genetic sequence can be read and decoded

Tendon – a flexible but inelastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching a muscle to a bone

Testosterone- a steroid hormone that stimulates development of male secondary sexual characteristics

Thoracic cavity – the chamber (chest cavity) of the human body that is protected by the thoracic wall (the rib cage and associated skin, muscle and fascia)

Threshold – the magnitude or intensity that must be exceeded for a certain reaction, phenomenon, result, or condition to occur or be manifested

Thymus – a lymphoid organ situated in the neck of vertebrates that produces T cells for the immune system

Thyroid cartilage – the largest cartilage of the larynx

Tissue – any of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells and their products

Trachea large membranous tube reinforced by rings of cartilage, extending from the larynx to the bronchial tubes and conveying air to and from the lungs; the windpipe

Transfer rna (tRNA) – a type of RNA molecule that helps decode a messenger RNA sequence into a protein

Translocator – a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes

Transmembrane protein – (TP) – a type of membrane protein spanning the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached

Triglycerides – the major form of fat stored by the body. A compound formed from three fatty acids.

Tropomyosin- a protein involved in muscle contraction

Tumor (swelling) – a swelling of a part of the body, generally without inflammation, caused by an abnormal growth of tissue, whether benign or malignant

Tunica dartos – a structure in the scrotum that acts to regulate the temperature of the testicles, which promotes spermatogenesis

Ureter – the duct by which urine passes from the kidney to the bladder or cloaca

Uterus –the organ in the lower body of a woman or female mammal where offspring are conceived and in which they gestate before birth; the womb.

Vas Deferens – the duct that conveys sperm from the testicle to the urethra

Vasoconstriction – the constriction of blood vessels, which increase blood pressure

Vasodilation – the dilation of blood vessels, which decreases blood pressure

Vasopressin – a pituitary hormone that acts to promote the retention of water by the kidneys and increase blood pressure

Vasorecta – the collecting tubules of the kidney

Vena cava- a large vein carrying deoxygenated blood into the heart

Ventricle- two lower chambers of the heart

Vesicle – a fluid or air-filled cavity or sac

V-gated channel- transmembrane ion channels that are activated by changes in electrical membrane potential near the channel

Villus- any of numerous minute projections set together closely on a surface increasing the surface area for absorption

Virus – a microorganism that is smaller than a bacterium that cannot grow or reproduce apart from a living cell.

Viscera – the internal organs in the main cavities of the body, especially those in the abdomen, e.g., the intestines

Voltage-gated Sodium channel – a class of transmembrane ion channels that are activated by changes in electrical membrane potential near the channel

White Blood Cell – a less technical term for leukocyte

Zona pellucida – the thich transparent membrane surrounding a mammalian ovum before implantation